Understanding the responses of species at the limits of their distribution or when subjected to disturbances forms a core element of ecological theory. With significant changes in the frequency of disturbances associated with changes in climate, pollution and habitat modification, species and ecological communities are encountering extreme conditions more often. Our knowledge now needs to extend to the future potential of species and systems within this new landscape. Building on current knowledge of species already living in extreme habitats, we need to understand mechanisms that underpin the recovery and resilience of species and ecosystems, including rapid evolution of characteristics, effects of small population sizes, and changes in behaviour. This conference will explore our understanding of extreme events and their impacts on species, communities and ecosystems, developing theories and methods to enhance this understanding, and investigating mechanisms that enable resilience in a more extreme future.